Ancient Egypt,
Turkey, and South America
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(last worked on: September 24th, 2023)

This Old Pyramid (Wikimedia)

5/23/2023 update: A comprehensive, rational video about alternative archaeology:


There's a stunning mistake ("the stars rotate around the Sun"), but outrageous speculations (like claiming that the Great Pyramid was some sort of a power plant) are kept to a minimum. (One must sort the chaff from the grain.)

* 3/30/2023 update: Perhaps I can contribute something here, by way of calling the alternative archaeology community's attention to gamma ray spectrometry: a way to sort out and associate granite (and perhaps other stone) artifacts.

* "Where are the (power) tools?" From time to time I try to Google for progress on answering that question.

* I don't know of any precision power tools --but: it would help immensely to know if a given piece of extraordinary stonework actually belonged to the era (and quarries) of a given archaeological site. If so: then in association with what. Such questions might be answered with gamma spectrometry, but I've seen no mention of it from venues like "UnchartedX" --and yes: I've written to Ben van Kerkwyk, as well as to Prof. Robert M. Schoch and Graham Hancock.

I take all 3 to be sincere and "onto something/s", despite that members of the community they circulate in will "jump the shark" --by proposing such phenomena as levitating 100 ton blocks of stone with sound waves^. Both Schoch and Hancock have scathing Wikipedia bios and may well have overlooked a few things in their research --yet:

^--there they be: "facts on the ground". How the hell did they move those things, then mill and fit them precisely? Having no satisfactory answers themselves, the academically qualified leave plenty of room for others to chime in. (Update: there's good historical evidence that extremely large blocks of stone would be fitted with quarter rounds and rolled.)

From a Britannica video (at 2 minutes in):

NARRATOR [while overlooking an ancient quarry]: "How do they know where the columns and blocks from here have ended up? The clue is in the rock itself. It's granite. There are three elements of the granite-- uranium, potassium, and thorium-- which are naturally radioactive. They emit gamma rays -- And every granite is different. They're all of different ages, and have different amounts of these three elements in them. They give a chemical fingerprint that could be matched up with any granite artifact you come across."


* Instead of the satchell-sized gear we see in that video, today's options include smartphone sized spectrometers with hand sized scintillation detectors. Investigations might thereby be done rather discreetly. (Attempts to do serious amateur surveying at these sites might get one escorted off the premises. Pros sometimes wait for years to get clearance --re: the recent muon "Scan Pyramids" project.)

* So far, I've gotten no traction with my suggestion. If they do decide to use gamma spectra gear, I suggest that they bring in a field experienced person to manage the effort. There are many ways to go wrong with it.

^ There is mention of employing "modern radiological techniques" at 7 minutes into the 3rd link, just below (to which I've just now subscribed), so I also wrote to Josh Gates^^ and encouraged pursuing this approach. That resulted in a nice response of acknowledgment.

* 4/14/2023 update: Here are links to "History For Granite", a very rational website. Best bookmark the first one (home page). I found it hard to Google up today. (Many similarly named web sites are piling on).




>  (the Meidum Pyramid)

HFG is a most rational website, which salvages what little carbon dating data is available. (Mr. Gates speculates that Dr. Hawass' and Prof. Lerner's controversial roles as stand pat, progress thwarting Egyptologists --has been great for tourism --a serious industry and source of foreign exchange for Egypt.

^^ Here-to-fore, everyone in the world (except me) knew who Josh Gates is (re: Discovery, Expedition Unknown, etc. which had also gotten by me). No wonder HFG's research and production values.

* 4/25/2023: Then there are the myriad, quality, rational video postings by Matt Sibson at:


* 2/22/2023 update: I recently found my way to the "UnchartedX" website, which is following up on Flinders Petrie's and  Christopher P. Dunn's mensuration work^, while keeping (some) mentions of crystal/sonic resonance and such to a minimum. A good starting point is with Ben Van Kirkwyk's (currently) latest video at:

--and then:
>  (the Meidum Pyramid)

You can find many more at:


^ It was looking like Petrie's work with the famous "Core #7" --was fudged, per such as:


---but then Chris Dunn stepped up to the plate (or went to London, rather), resulting in:


* I wish Mr. Dunn would stay in his machinist's lane --instead of such speculations as:


Earlier writ:

* With attention to the following web pages:

--all by Christopher P. Dunn (who presents as an aerospace machinist and examiner of ancient Egyptian artifacts),

--and as referenced by Prof. Hassaan at:


Hopefully, you'll take the time to follow Dunn's and Hassaan's reasoning (at least until they wander far enough afield to propose the Great Pyramid as some sort of a power plant).

* While this stuff is fascinating, it seems a reach that those diligent, but ancient, barefoot, authority worshipping and ritual burdened people --had precision machine tooling equipment hidden away. It's easier to think there might have been an earlier, materially advanced civilization.

* There is some contention that the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid are thousands of years older than the first Egyptian dynasty. Either way: with the technology and tools to do such heavy lifting and precision work, the builders expressed themselves via millions of burdensome, solid stone blocks.

* Please understand --that to make a big old stone box (crypt, sarcophagus, whatever --and there were 20 of them at one site), Dunn determined that they started with a solid block of granite weighing about 100 tons (perhaps shipped in from a great distance). Then they set to work removing rock from what would become the interior. Finally, they surfaced the floor, the four inner faces, the outsides and the lid --to a polished tolerance of less than .001 inch.  (BRUTAL!)

Assuming that what Dunn offers isn't all just made up BS (I'm easily taken in), these artifacts have the potential of up-ending our understanding of history --but without a handy replacement understanding.

We need to find those bodacious machine tools.

I'm looking for more web resources and opinions.

Updates: The evidence for earlier civilizations is piling up --per:




* Perhaps it's best that these "facts on the ground" be accepted slowly.